Pesticide Problems

"The use of HR [Herbicide Resistant] crops sometimes initially correlated with decreases in total amount of herbicide applied per hectare of crop per year, but the decreases have not generally been sustained..... Weed resistance to glyphosate is a problem..."
Genetically Engineered Crops: Experiences and Prospects
National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine, United States, May 2016

"Genetically modified cotton crops in the United States are becoming useless, as weeds evolve a resistance to the herbicide glyphosate. In the southern cotton crops, mutant weeds are becoming so bad mechanical harvesters are being damaged, and weed control must be done by hand [
view ABC News USA video clip here]. A scientific study has found that the herbicide resistant weed population could threaten GM crop technology. The study was published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences journal."
GM cotton crops in US useless
ABC (Australia), 12 January 2010

"The area of U.S. cropland infested with glyphosate-resistant weeds has expanded to 61.2 million acres in 2012, according to a survey conducted by Stratus Agri-Marketing. Nearly half (49%) of all U.S. farmers interviewed reported that glyphosate-resistant weeds were present on their farm in 2012, up from 34% of farmers in 2011. The survey also indicates that the rate at which glyphosate-resistant weeds are spreading is gaining momentum, increasing 25% in 2011 and 51% in 2012. The Stratus Glyphosate Resistance Tracking study is conducted annually. It’s now in its third year. In 2012, Stratus completed interviews with nearly 3,000 farmers during the summer and fall. 'We asked farmers to share their experiences with glyphosate resistance on their farms and we’re clearly seeing the problem intensify,' explains Stratus Agri-Marketing vice president Kent Fraser. Increases were reported in most states but especially in the Midwest. Not only are glyphosate-resistant weeds spreading geographically, the problem is also intensifying with multiple species now resistant on an increasing number of farms. 'There is a very high rate of resistance in the southern states like Georgia where 92% of growers reported having glyphosate-resistant weeds,' reports Fraser. 'And we’re also seeing the problem intensify in the midwest. In Illinois, 43% of farmers reported having glyphosate-resistant weeds in 2012.' Marestail (horseweed) was the weed species most commonly reported as resistant to glyphosate herbicides, followed by Palmer amaranth (pigweed). Other glyphosate-resistant weed species were also tracked in the study. In 2012, 27% of U.S. farmers reported multiple glyphosate-resistant weeds on their farm, up from 15% in 2011 and 12% in 2010. For more insights from the Stratus Glyphosate Resistance Tracking study visit "
Glyphosate-resistant weed problem extends to more species, more farms
Farm Industry News, 29 January 2013

"Farmers in the USA have increased their use of pesticides since the introduction of genetically modified crops, according to a new study. Washington State University professor Charles Benbrook has studied the use of crops that have been genetically modified for resistance to the glyphosate weedkiller, Roundup, produced by US biotech company Monsanto. Producers of GM crops, such as Monsanto, claim they require less chemicals as plants are engineered to repel crop pests, such as aphids. But the study, published in the peer-reviewed journal Environmental Sciences Europe, found that the use of herbicides in three GM crops - cotton, soya beans and maize, actually increased in the USA over the past two decades. Herbicide-tolerant crops worked extremely well in their early years, the study found. But in recent years, so-called 'superweeds' have become resistant to glyphosate - Roundup's main active ingredient. Superweeds such as horseweed, giant ragweed and pigweed are developing resistance to Roundup (glyphosate) and taking over millions of hectares in the USA. Since about the year 2000, farmers have used increasing amounts of Roundup and 'two or three additional herbicides' to fend off these resistant weeds, said Prof Benbrook. 'Resistant weeds have become a major problem for many farmers reliant on GM crops, and are now driving up the volume of herbicide needed each year by about 25%,' he added. Prof Benbrook estimated the use of GM crops had increased herbicide use by 239 million kg between 1996 and 2011. Overall, in this period pesticide use in the USA had increased by an estimated 183 million kg, equivalent to 7%, the study found. The research would appear to undermine claims from biotech companies, such as Monsanto, that GM crops need less chemicals - one of their major selling points. Farmers in the UK are banned from growing GM crops for commercial use, but two experimental field trials, of GM potatoes and a trial of GM wheat, began in 2012. GM crops do, however, enter Britain mainly as animal feed. Monsanto has so far not made an official comment on the findings of the study."
US farmers using more pesticides with GM crops
Farmers Weekly, 23 October 2012

Click Here For Summary Of 2012 Benbrook Findings

Report Challenges GM Industry Myths
Farming Online, 19 June 2012

Herbicide Resistant Crops - Click Here
Insecticidal Crops - Click Here

Herbicide Resistant Crops:

Palmer amaranth, the king of weeds, cripples new herbicides
Chemical and Engineering News, 3 August 2019

As Weeds Outsmart The Latest Weedkillers, Farmers Are Running Out Of Easy Options
NPR, 11 April 2019

Volatile pesticide to be sprayed on soybeans and cotton this season
Investigate Midwest, 26 March 2019
M.S. Swaminathan calls GM crops a failure; Centre’s adviser faults paper
The Hindu, 8 December 2018

Herbicide resistance an increasing phenomenon
Wisconsin State Farmer, 19 Feb 2017

The Rise and Future of Glyphosate and Glyphosate-Resistant Crops
Pest Management Scienc. 2016 Oct 18. doi: 10.1002/ps.4462.
Doubts About the Promised Bounty of Genetically Modified Crops
New York Times, 29 October 2016
GM soya growers use nearly 30% more herbicide, research reveals
Farmers Weekly, 23 September 2016
Herbicide-resistant weed jumps 60 miles in a year
Grand Forks Herald, 4 August 2015
GMOs, Herbicides, and Public Health
New England Journal Medicine 2015; 373:693-695, August 20, 2015
Managing Glyphosate Resistant Weeds in Cotton
Delta Farm Press, 20 June 2015
The Economics of Glyphosate Resistance Management in Corn and Soybean Production
US Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, Economic Research Report Number 184, April 2015
EPA will require weed-resistance restrictions on glyphosate herbicide
Reuters, 31 March 2015
Monsanto’s Newest GM Crops May Create More Problems Than They Solve
Wired, 2 February 2015
USDA approves Monsanto's new GMO soybeans, cotton
Reuters, 15 January 2015

New Generation of GM Crops Puts Agriculture in a ‘Crisis Situation’
Wired, 25 September 2014

U.S. Midwestern farmers fighting explosion of 'superweeds'
Reuters, 23 July 2014

Charles Benbrook - Will second-generation herbicide-tolerant crops dominate the weed management toolbox?
Center for Sustaining Agriculture and Natural Resources, June 30, 2014

The Next Generation of GM Crops Has Arrived—And So Has the Controversy
Wired, 24 June 2014

'Superweeds' choke farms
Des Moines Register, 23 June 2014

Soybean cultivation is no longer easy, says agronomist
Agrolink (Brazil), 5 June 2014

DuPont Co. Sued for $1 Billion Over Genetic Technology
Bloomberg, 4 June 2014

Voracious Worm Evolves to Eat Biotech Corn Engineered to Kill It
Wired, 17 March 2014

Field-evolved resistance by western corn rootworm to multiple Bacillus thuringiensis toxins in transgenic maize
Aaron J. Gassmann, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1317179111
Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America

Scientists find multiple problems with GMOs
Mail Tribune, 13 April 2014
U.S. GMO crops show mix of benefits, concerns - USDA report
Reuters, 24 February 2014

Resistant weeds continue devastating march through Mid-South farmland
Delta Farm Press, 27 January 2014

Side-by-side trials show heightened performance of Asgrow® Genuity® Roundup Ready 2 Yield® soybeans versus LibertyLink® system
Delta Farm Press, 17 January 2014

Advice from weed resistance expert: Try diversity
Delta Farm Press, 17 January 2014

Diversity helps soybean growers manage weeds and herbicide resistance
Delta Farm Press, 17 January 2014

Current weed control programs in cotton ‘not sustainable’
Delta Farm Press, 13 January 2014

US 'superweeds' epidemic implicates GMOs
News24, 13 January 2014
Revealed: How Frankenstein 'superweeds' have swamped 60 MILLION acres of US farmland - and can't be killed
Mail, 11 December 2013

2,4-D and dicamba-resistant crops and their implications for susceptible non-target crops
Michigan State University, 7 November 2013

Learning to live with resistant Palmer amaranth
Delta Farm Press, 7 November 2013

Weed resistance and new technologies
Farm Delta Press, 23 August 2013

Larry Steckel - 4 reasons pigweeds won this year
Farm Delta Press, 1 August 2013

Glyphosate-resistant Palmer amaranth on turnrows and ditchbanks
Delta Farm Press, 20 July 2012
Superweeds: How Biotech Crops Bolster the Pesticide Industry
Food & Water Watch, July 2013
GMO Crops Mean More Herbicide, Not Less
Forbes, 2 July 2013

Study: no yield advantage with GM crops
ABC (Australia), 24 June 2013

North American crops failing with reliance on GM biotechnologies: Study
Xinhua, 19 June 2013
GM a failing biotechnology in modern agro-ecosystems
University of Canterbury press release, 18 Jun 2013
(2013): Sustainability and innovation in staple crop production in the US Midwest
International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability, DOI:10.1080/14735903.2013.806408
More pests 'resistant to GM crops': study
AFP, 10 June 2013
A million acres of glyphosate-resistant weeds in Canada?
Manitoba Co-operator, 7 May 2013

Dr Charles Benbrook - GE Crop Risk Assessment Challenges: An Overview
Food Safety News, 6 May 2013

Milkweed loss in agricultural fields because of herbicide use: effect on the monarch butterfly population
Insect Conservation and Diversity 6(2): 135–144

Expect more soil insecticide used with Bt hybrids
AgProfessional, 1 April 2013

Michael Hart - My War Against GM Crops
Huffington Post, 24 March 2013
Glyphosate-resistant weed problem extends to more species, more farms
Farm Industry News, 29 January 2013
US farmers using more pesticides with GM crops
Farmers Weekly, 23 October 2012
How GM crops have increased the use of danger pesticides and created superweeds and toxin-resistant insects
Mail, 3 October 2012
Pesticide use ramping up as GMO crop technology backfires: study
Reuters, 2 October 2012
'Superweeds' Linked to Rising Herbicide Use in GM Crops, Study Finds
ScienceDaily, 2 October 2012
Super weeds no easy fix for US agriculture-experts
Reuters, 10 May 2012
New GM Crops Could Make Superweeds Even Stronger
Wired News, 1 May 2012
Genetically modified crops' results raise concern
San Francisco Chronicle, 30 April 2012

As Roundup's effect fades, farming costs rise
Delawareonline, 17 April 2012

Analysis - Dow's new corn - 'time bomb' or farmers' dream?
Reuters, 24 April 2012

Monsanto Says Weedkiller-Resistant Kochia Found in Canada
Bloomberg, 12 January 2012

Study ties GMO corn, soybeans to butterfly losses
Star Tribune, 16 March 2012

Super weeds pose growing threat to US crops
Reuters, 19 September 2011

Monsanto Corn Plant Losing Bug Resistance
Wall St Journal, 29 August 2011
Resistant weeds leave farmers desperate
St Louis Post-Dispatch, 17 July 2011

Insecticide usage down, herbicides not so much
Lincoln Star Journal (Nebraska), 29 May 2011

Despite Industry Claims, Herbicide Use Fails to Decline with GE Crops
Beyond Pesticides, 3 June 2011

New plant disease linked to GM crops and pesticides
ABC (Australia), 16 June 2011
Weeds Gone Wild
Farm Journal, 5 January 2011
Glyphosate-resistant giant ragweed has spread in southern Ontario
Digital Journal, 23 November 2010
Monsanto paying farmers to increase herbicide use
Des Moines Register, 19 October 2010

House hearing focuses on resistant weeds, technology oversight
Delta Farm Press, 11 October 2010

Fall residuals for glyphosate-resistant Italian ryegrass
Delta Farm Press, 4 October 2010

Interest up for conventional soybeans
Delta Farm Press, 29 August 2010
Modified genes found in wild plant, possibly cross between GMOs
Kyodo News International, 2 July 2010
Pigweed threatens Georgia cotton industry
Southeast Farm Press, 6 July 2010
Alabama cotton growers battling pigweed
Southeast Farm Press, 28 June 2010
Waterhemp next glyphosate-resistant weed
Delta Farm Press, 22 June 2010
Resistant giant ragweed
Delta Farm Press, 28 May 2010
Are green stink bugs a threat to soybeans?
Southeast Farm Press, 21 May 2010

* DuPont estimate that glyphosate resistant weeds will have spread to 40% of the US soya corn acreage by 2015 (Wall Street Journal, 4 June 2010)
* Roundup Ready GM crops have lead to at least nine species of weed developing resistance to glyphosate to the point where some farmers can no longer control weed infestations (New Scientist, 13 May 2010)
* The widespread use of 'Roundup Ready' crops in the United States has led to the emergence of 10 resistant weed species in at least 22 states affecting millions of acres (New York Times, 3 May 2010)
* Evidence from government funded research in America indicates that the widespread use of Roundup-Ready GM crops is adversely affect root growth and soil microbes (Reuters, 13 April 2010)
* There are now nine weed species in the United States that have developed resistance to glyphosate (AgWeb, 9 April 2010)
* With the spread of Roundup Ready crops the first case of a glyphosate-resistant weed (giant ragweed) in Canada has occurred (Strarphoenix (Canada), 6 April 2010)
* Farmers' uptake of GM crops in the United States has been influenced by powerful marketing, but the spread of the technology is leading to weed resistance (now including giant ragweed), greater costs, and lower yields (Iowa Independent, 11 March 2010)
* About 20 companies are bringing 40-50 products or services to market in Tennessee to try and deal with the rise of glyphosate-resistant weeds (The Commercial Appeal, 26 February 2010)
* Glyphosate resistance has spread to kochia weed populations in Kansas with GM driven glyphosate resistance in general estimated to be affecting nearly 11 million acres in the US (Reuters, 26 February 2010)
* Scientists have voiced support for research which shows rising levels of pesticide applications on GM crops in the United States (Nature Biotechnology, February 2010)
* A study published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences has found that the occurrence of glyphosate resistant weeds in America could threaten the sustainable use of  GM crop glyphosate herbicide-resistant technology (ABC, Australia, 12 January 2010)
* Glyphosate herbicide resistance in weeds continues to spread in the United States and is now occurring in Iowa (Kansas Farmer, 18 December 2009)
Herbicide resistant GM crops in the United States are continuing to result in increased usage of herbicide compared to non-GM systems (Reuters, 17 November 2009)
* In some GM crops glyphosate resistance has become so severe that farmers are having to resort to manual weeding (ABC News, 6 October 2009)
* The stacking of GM traits is leading to complications in the control of volunteer plants and increasing risks of insect resistance (AgProfessional, September 2009)
* Gylphosate resistant weeds have become such a problem in genetically engineered crops that some farmers in the US are turning back to using residual herbicides and even hoes, according Ford L. Baldwin of Practical Weed Consultants, LLC  (Delta Farm Press, 20 August 2009)
* One of the reasons for the rapid uptake of GM crops is the lack of independent science to give farmers impartial information on their actual performance, and some people are finally beginning to notice (Financial Times, Blog, 11 August 2009)
* Glyphosate resistant pigweed has been confirmed in 21 counties in Arkansas since first confirmed in Mississippi County since 2005 (University of Arkansas, 10 August 2009)
* Resistance to glyphosate has become so prevalent in some parts of the United States because of the introduction of genetically modified crops that some farmers are now resorting to hand weeding and Monsanto are paying farmers to switch to other herbicides (Memphis Commercial Appeal, 9 August 2009)
* In Tennessee and Arkansas glyphosate can no longer be considered a pigweed herbicide due to resistance problems (Delta Farm Press, 4 August 2009)
* For the first time since 2000 the share of the US soy crop taken by GM varieties has fallen as the economic reasons for growing them weaken (The Organic & Non-GMO Report July/August 2009)
* Glyphosate resistant weeds are spreading in Argentina with the growing of Roundup Ready soya (Geoforum, Vol. 40, No. 4. (July 2009), pp. 623-633)
* The use of glyphosate in 'Roundup Ready' crops has lead to 15 species of weed being resistant to the herbicide with the problem especially acute in the US (Agweek 8 June 2009)
* Glyphosate-resistant weeds now cover nearly 38 million acres in the United States (Delta Farm Press, 15 May 2009)
* Glyphosate resistant weeds are starting to emerge in Argentina following the introduction of Roundup Ready GM technology (ScienceDirect, 28 April 2009)
The explosion in weeds resistant to the glyphosate herbicide is continuing to spread across millions of acres in the United States causing some farmers to consider moving back to non-GM crops (France 24, 19 April 2009)
The development of glyphosate resistant weeds on US farms is encouraging the search for alterative to Roundup Ready technology. Bayer's Liberty Link soybeans will require multiple applications and/or use with other herbicides (Delta Farm Press, 13 February 2009)
Glyphosate resistance continues to be a problem for American cotton growers to the point where they are having to consider other weed management programmes that do not rely on Roundup Ready GM technology, including use of other herbicides and soil tillage (Delta Farm Press, 6 Feburary 2009)
As glyphosate resistance increases in Roundup Ready soy bean crops more farmers are considering returning to conventional beans and using residual herbicides as an alternative to glyphosate (Delta Farm Press, 5 February 2009)
LibertyLink soybeans introduced to fight glyphosate resistant weeds in 19 US states, but new beans treated with more than one type of herbicide (Delta Farm Press, 22 January 2009)
Glyphosate weed resistance in the US now includes ryegrass (Delta Farm Press, 30 October 2008)
Weed resistance to glyphosate is spreading in GM cotton crops in South Carolina and in Georgia some farms are even being abandoned (The Times and Democrat (South Carolina), 11 August 2008)
Glyphosate resistant horesweed continues to spread in Roundup Ready crops in the United States (Delta Farm Press, 13 August 2008)
Concerns have been growing about the social and environmental effects of growing GM soya in Argentina including the rising of weed resistant to glyphosate (IPS, 29 July 2008)
The Weed Science Scociety of America has issued a warning about the growing problem of glyphosate resistant weeds in the US (Farm Press, 5 June 2008)
Syngenta are trying to help us farmers deal with the growing problem of glyphosate resistant weeds, but there is no 'silver bullet' solution in the offing (Farm Delta Press, 30 May 2008)
GM crops are requiring more applications of Roundup (Delta Farm Press, 19 March 2008)
Glyphosate resistant weeds are becoming a major problem in Arkansas (Delta Farm Press, 13 March 2008)
GM crops have become closely associated with unsustainable monocroping systems and herbicide resistant weeds (Delta Farm Press, 12 February 2008)
Non-GM Cotton Just As Or More Profitable As GM (American Society of Agronomy, 11 February 2008)
Lack of rotation in GM crops giving rise to management problems (Delta Farm Press, 25 January 2008)
High uptake of GM crops in the United States is bringing its own weed and pest problems, (Farmers Weekly 30 October 2007)
GM herbicide resistant corn is causing volunteer control problems in follow-on GM crops (Farm Delta Press, 12 October 2007)
GM herbicide resistant crops need to be used with pre-crop emergence residuals to preserve yield (Delta Farm Press, 28 September 2007
GM herbicide resistant crops are requiring more applications of Roundup (glyphosate) than originally expected (Delta Farm Press, 17 August 2007)
High uptake of GM crops in the United States is bringing its own weed and pest problems, Farmers Weekly, 30 October 2007
Glyphosate resistant GM cotton volunteers are complicating pest and disease management in Australia, FarmOnline April 2007
Glyphosate resistant weed problems emerge for GM soya growers in Brazil, Rural TV, Brazil, 14 January.2007
Glyphosate resistant pigweed spreads in US GM crops, Farm Press, 27 September 2006
Two glyphosate-resistant weeds associated with GM soya reported in Argentian and Brazil, Agrenco News, August 28, 2006
Weed resistance to Roundup continues to spread following the introduction of GM Roundup-Ready cotton crops - Associated Press, 8 July 2006
Glyphosate resistance spreads with use of Roundup Ready crops
No quick cures for glyphosate-resistant weeds - Delta Farm Press, 27 September 2005
Tennessee Researchers Confirm Glyphosate-Resistant Pigweed - Business Journal, 24 September 2005
Glyphosate-tolerant pigweed confirmed in West Tennessee
- Delta Farm Press, 23 September 2005
GM weedkiller use increases - Farmers Weekly, October 2004
US Hits Volunteer RR Corn Problem - Farmers Weekly, September 2004
Argentina's bitter GM harvest, New Scientist 17 April 2004
USDA data shows GM crops generally do not reduce pesticide use
'Glyphosate resistance dominates weed science meetings' - Successful Farming, December 6, 2002
Syngenta web site on GM crop resistance problems - click here
USDA Report Exposes GM Crop Economic Myths
UK Farming Establishment Knowingly Supports Unscientific GM Trials
'Welsh Farmer' - Flaws in GM crop trials - Feb 2002
Herbicide tolerant varieties have modestly increased herbicide use - Royal Society of Chemistry paper
Problems with Canola GE volunteers getting worse each year
'GM volunteer canoloa causes havoc' - Article - Monsanto forced to resort to hand weeding
Roundup Ready corn in the US has lead to an increase in herbicide usage on corn (maize) crops
GM fields spread new superweeds - Sunday Times
Disease and pestlience hits Missouri as GM soy expands
Monsanto gears up for special chemical mixtures against GM 'superweeds'
GM oilseed rape in Canada 'impossible to control' - CBC News report
ISU Weed Science Online - Are RR weeds in your future?
"Herbicide Impact on Fusarium spp. and Soybean Cyst Nematode in Glyphosate-Tolerant Soybean"
Soya realities expose GM hype - yields down, pesticides up
GM rape heading for agronomic scrap heap?
Cross-Pollination Leads to Triple Herbicide Resistance ISB News Report
Pollen flow between herbicide tolerant canola (Brassica napus)  is the cause of multiple resistant canola volunteers WSSA Abstracts, 2000 Meeting of the Weed Society of America, Volume 40, 2000
Roundup hits resistant weeds in US
US data reveals UK GM trials unscientific
Glyphosate treated GM soy regime impact on soil micro-organisms
"Weed Shift Worries" - GM farmers trade one weed problem for another - "Progressive Farmer" article
How much do we actually need GMOs? - Meeting of the Association of Formulation Chemists, Orlando, Sept 2000
GM Rape Changes Character - Gene Silencing - herbicide resistance lost
General Agronomic Problems With GM Cotton
GM Weed Shift Worries - Progressive Farmer, June 12, 2000

New Scientist on RR cotton volunteers problem
Sugar beet study exposes media manipulation by GM industry
Back to Back Roundup Ready Threatens Boll Weevil Control
GM Rape fails to perform as study reveals erroneous basis for UK fieldscale trials
First multiple HT GM gene-flow discovered in UK OSR trials

NLP commentary on University of Kentucky Study showing no yield or cost benefits from Roundup Ready Corn
No yield or cost benefits from Roundup Ready Corn - University of Kentucky Study
Herbicide applications increase with Roundup Ready soya- Wisconsin study short summary
Complex nine point management plan required for herbicide resistant Canola volunteers
Triple-resistant canola weeds found in Alta., February 10, 2000
Canola - problems with herbicide resistance crop in canada
The failings of herbcide resistant crops
Monsanto approach to sustainability
Biodiversity impact of herbicide resistant crops - Iowa State University0
Briefing paper on agronomic and other problems associated with gm Oilseed Rape
Evidence of 'superweed' persistance
Weed resistance problems in Roundup Ready crops - Iowa State University
More weed resistance problems in Roundup Ready crops - Iowa State University
Promiscuity in transgenic plants - Iowa State University
photo of surviving volunteer GM canola plants in Canada after spraying with Roundup!

Insecticidal Crops:

"Growing cotton that has been genetically modified to poison its main pest can lead to a boom in the numbers of other insects, a ten-year study in northern China has found. In 1997, the Chinese government approved the commercial cultivation of cotton plants genetically modified to produce a toxin from the bacteria Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) that is deadly to the bollworm Helicoverpa armigera. Outbreaks of larvae of the cotton bollworm moth in the early 1990s had hit crop yields and profits, and the pesticides used to control the bollworm damaged the environment and caused thousands of deaths from poisoning each year. More than 4 million hectares of Bt cotton are now grown in China. Since the crop was approved, a team led by Kongming Wu, an entomologist at the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences in Beijing, has monitored pest populations at 38 locations in northern China, covering 3 million hectares of cotton and 26 million hectares of various other crops. Numbers of mirid bugs (insects of the Miridae family), previously only minor pests in northern China, have increased 12-fold since 1997, they found. 'Mirids are now a main pest in the region,' says Wu. 'Their rise in abundance is associated with the scale of Bt cotton cultivation.' Wu and his colleagues suspect that mirid populations increased because less broad-spectrum pesticide was used following the introduction of Bt cotton. 'Mirids are not susceptible to the Bt toxin, so they started to thrive when farmers used less pesticide,' says Wu. The study is published in this week's issue of Science. 'Mirids can reduce cotton yields just as much as bollworms, up to 50% when not controlled,' Wu adds. The insects are also emerging as a threat to crops such as green beans, cereals, vegetables and various fruits. The rise of mirids has driven Chinese farmers back to pesticides — they are currently using about two-thirds as much as they did before Bt cotton was introduced. As mirids develop resistance to the pesticides, Wu expects that farmers will soon spray as much as they ever did. Two years ago, a study led by David Just, an economist at Cornell University at Ithaca, New York, concluded that the economic benefits of Bt cotton in China have eroded. The team attributed this to increased pesticide use to deal with secondary pests. The conclusion was controversial, with critics of the study focusing on the relatively small sample size and use of economic modelling. Wu's findings back up the earlier study, says David Andow, an entomologist at the University of Minnesota in St Paul. 'The finding reminds us yet again that genetic modified crops are not a magic bullet for pest control,' says Andow. 'They have to be part of an integrated pest-management system to retain long-term benefits.'.... Wu stresses, however, that pest control must keep sight of the whole ecosystem."
GM crop use makes minor pests major problem
| Nature |13 May 2010

European Corn Borer Resistance to Bt Corn Found in Canada
Field Crop News, 10 May 2019
M.S. Swaminathan calls GM crops a failure; Centre’s adviser faults paper
The Hindu, 8 December 2018
Experts: Cotton farmers may face increased bollworm pressure this season
South West Farm Press, 25 April 2018
Pest attack has killed crops and hopes of 41 lakh farmers in Maharashtra
Hindustan Times, 14 February 2018
These two issues could put the brakes on the Bt cotton story
Economic Times, 21 January 2018
Research Shows Pest Resistance to Biotech Crops Is Surging
University of Arizona News, 11 October 2017

Magnitude and allele frequency of Cry1F resistance in field populations of the fall armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Brazil
Journal of Economic Entomology, 110(4), 2017, 1770–1778. doi: 10.1093/jee/tox146

Bt cotton falling to pest, Maharashtra tensed
Times of India, 5 July 2017

SJM urges ministry to reduce trait value of BT cotton seeds
Fibre2Fashion, 21 March 2017

Field-Evolved Resistance in Corn Earworm to Cry Proteins Expressed by Transgenic Sweet Corn
PLOS One, 30 December 2016

The merits of tradition
Dawn, 21 November 2016

Shuffling the Deck Chairs in Bt Crops
Focus On Entomology, 10 September 2016

As a GMO Pillar Wobbles, Biotech Companies Promise New Insect-Killing Genes
NPR, 22 September 2016

When Pyramids Fall
DTN Progressive Farmer, 10 August 2016

Indian farmers cotton on to new seed, in blow to Monsanto
Reuters, 3 August 2016

Spain: Farmers abandon Monsanto’s GM maize en masse
GM Watch, 6 July 2016
Fly in the face of Bt cotton
Hindu Business Line, 6 May 2016
How Monsanto found an able adversary in the Sangh parivaar
Economic Times, 29 March 2016

Centre tells Delhi high court Bt cotton’s resistance to pests has waned
Live Mint, 29 January 2016

KRRS seeks relief from seed companies for failure of Bt cotton
The Hindu, 2 December 2015

Is the Bt trait less effective for corn earworms?
Dairy Herd Management, 22 May 2015
Rapid increase in neonicotinoid insecticides driven by seed treatments
Penn State News, 2 April 2015
Western corn rootworm is getting the EPA's attention
CNBC,12 March 2015
DuPont seed sales dip as pest gains resistance to GM corn
Agrimoney, 27 January 2015
Can Efficient Insecticidal Plants Be Created or the Evolution of Phytophage Resistance to Commercial Transgenic Bt Plants
Russian Journal of Plant Physiology, 2015, Vol. 62, No. 1: 14–22
Armyworm resistance to GMO crops seen in U.S. - study
Reuters, 17 November 2014

Monsanto warning on negative effects of growing its genetically engineered soybean 'Intacta'
Testbiotech, 2 October 2014

Suspected Bt corn rootworm resistance in Pennsylvania
AG Professional, 12 August 2014

Brazil farmers say GMO corn no longer resistant to pests
Reuters, 28 July 2014

Bollworms develop resistance against Bt cotton crop
Dawn, 14 July 2014

Pest-resistant Bt Brinjal comes under pest attack
Financial Express (Bangaldesh), 7 April 2014

Severe Corn Rootworm Injury to Bt Hybrids in First-Year Corn Confirmed
The Bulletin: Pest Management and Crop Development Information for Illinois, 27 August 2013

Transgenics are changing for the worse the Brazilian agricultural reality
Special interview with Leonardo Melgarejo - representative of the Ministry of Agrarian Development at Brazils GMO regulator, CTNBio
Instituto Humanitas Unisinos (Brazil), 3 June 2013

As Biotech Seed Falters, Insecticide Use Surges In Corn Belt
NPR (Blog), 9 July 2013

Dr Charles Benbrook - GE Crop Risk Assessment Challenges: An Overview
Food Safety News, 6 May 2013

Bigger Refuges Needed to Delay Pest Resistance to Biotech Corn
University of Arizona News, 4 June 2012
Bt failure to hit cotton yield by 40%: Govt - Mumbai
DNA (India), 26 November 2012
Mounting Evidence’ of Bug-Resistant Corn Seen by EPA
Bloomberg, 5 September 2012
No more miracles so look after Bollgard
The Land, 24 August 2012

University study reveals pest now resistant to genetically modified corn
The Daily Illini, 29 August 2012

Corn farmers struggle to cope with rootworm resistance
Minnesota Public Radio, 3 August 2012

Review Bt cotton, orders state govt
Times of India, 21 July 2012

GM crop trouble as pests adapt
Western Farm Press, 21 June 2012

Pests damaging biotech corn, getting an early start
St. Louis Post-Dispatch, 15 June 2012

Cereals 2012: GM corn - not a 'panacea'
Farmers Weekly, 14 June 2012
The billion-dollar pest: U.S. beetle is developing resistance to one of the most widely used genetically modified crops, say scientists
Mail, 29 December 2011
Monsanto Corn May Be Failing to Kill Bugs, EPA Says
Bloomberg, 2 December 2011

Monsanto biotech corn not killing pests, research finds
St Louis Post Dispatch, 2 September 2011

BT gene in GM crops harmful for growth
Deccan Chronicle (India), 3 June 2011
Benefits of Bt cotton counterbalanced by secondary pests? Perceptions of ecological change in China
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, Volume 173, Numbers 1-4, 985-994

GM maize crops declining in Iberian peninsula
ENDS, 14 December 2010

Worms eat into GM crop myth - Insects expected to drop dead thrive on cotton plants
Telegraph (Calcutta), 12 December 2010

Cotton insect plan switching gears
Delta Farm Press, 19 July 2010
Are green stink bugs a threat to soybeans?
Southeast Farm Press, 21 May 2010

* A ten year study in China has found that GM Bt cotton can lead to a boom in secondary pests causing insecticide applications to rise towards their previous levels (|Nature |13 May 2010)
* Scientists are calling for the reassessement of the long-term impact of GM crops at a 'landscape level' as millions of hectares of Bt cotton in China become infested with secondary pests (Guardian, 13 May 2010)
* Cotton growers in Louisiana are finding that Monsanto's second generation Bollgard II Bt cotton is not providing the levels of pest control required and are increasing their pesticide applications in response (Delta Farm Press, 14 April 2010)
* Insecticide applications on Bt cotton crops in Mississippi have been rising over the last five years as secondary pest move into the void vacated by bollworms (Delta Farm Press, 7 April 2010)
* Bollgard II GM cotton in Louisiana is failing to control bollworms properly (AgFax.Com, 28 February 2010)
* Monsanto has acknowledged that pink bollworm resistance has been confirmed in Bt Cotton in India (Times of India, 6 March 2010)
* Pesticide applications on Bt Cotton in India are rising as new pests attack GM varieties (Telegraph (Calcutta) 16 February 2010)
* Although Bt crops in America helped reduce the use of insecticides in cotton crops initially, in Mississippi spraying has begun rising again resulting in total costs to farmers which are increasingly uneconomic (Delta Farm Press, 15 January 2010)
* Data shows Bt resistance is genetically modified corn and cotton crops is more commonplace than many researchers are prepared to acknowledge (Arizona Daily Star, 22 December 2009)
* The stacking of GM traits is leading to complications in the control of volunteer plants and increasing risks of insect resistance (AgProfessional, September 2009)

US Farmers who have used Bt cotton varieties to control bollworms are finding that other pests are now taking over to the point where some growers in Arkansas are giving up growing the crop (Delta Farm Press, 2 February 2009)
US Bt cotton acreage fell in 2008 and cost of Bt pest control proved greater than spray based methods (Delta Farm Press, 23 January 2009)
Second generation GM cotton in Australia has been suffering from poor pest control in Australia (Stock and Land, Australia, 15 January 2009)
Non-GM Cotton Just As Or More Profitable As GM (American Society of Agronomy, 11 February 2008)
Secondary insect pests are making inroads into Bt Cotton crops (Farm Press, 10 March 2008)
Indications of insect resitance to Bt in cotton crops appears to be emerging in the United States (The Hindu Business Line, 21 Feb 2008)
Insects are beginning to develop resistance to Bt technology in the US (Farmers Guardian, 11 February 2008)Pest develops GM Bt insecticide resistance, Farmers Guardian, 11 February 2008
Bt GM technology is proving ineffective in control root worms in the US, The News-Gazette 13 July 2007
Bollworms feeding on Bt cotton in Arkansas, Delta Farm Press, July 28, 2006
No pesticide savings for Bt cotton as growers in China lose money, Newswise, 25 July 2006
Growth of secondary pests erode benefits of GM Bt cotton in China, Cornell University, July 22-26, 2006
Problems persist with inadequately tested Bt Cotton varieties in India - Financial Express, India, 5 June 2006
Bt Cotton in US fails to improve biodiversity, Scientific American, 2 May 2006
India Government Admits Bt Cotton Crop Failures - The Times of India, 1 December 2005
Scientists Confirm Failures of Bt-Crops - ISIS, September 2005
Problems with GM Bt cotton in China - Reuters June 2004
GM Cotton Damages Environment In China - Xinhuanet report
Crop failure and major   husbandry problems with Monsanto's Bt cotton in India
GM crops under fire after Bt cotton venture fails in India
GM plants no panacea - Monsanto Admits to Bt crop problems - New Scientist Report
USDA Report Exposes GM Crop Economic Myths

Australian farmers advised to spray where Bt Cotton fails to control target pest
Insecticides Still Used Despite Biotech
Bt cotton fails in Indonesia
Study Questions Widespread Use of Bt Corn
Integrated Pest Management pays off as GM hits problems - Cotton World
Pupae problems hit Bt cotton in Australia
Early resistance of Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) to Bacillus thuringiensis and its relation to the effect of transgenic cotton lines expressing BT toxin on the insect
Development and characterization of diamondback moth resistance to transgenic broccoli expressing high levels of Cry1C
Bt cotton strain loses resistance to other pest - Journal of Cotton Science
Lethal effects of Bt corn on Monarch Butterfly
How much do we actually need GMOs? - Meeting of the Association of Formulation Chemists, Orlando, Sept 2000
Bt cotton pest resistance problems
General Agronomic Problems With GM Cotton
Transgenic Oilseed Rape line unexpectedly increases growth of crop pest

Risks associated with Genetically Modified (GM) Baculovirus Vectors to Control Insect Pests
Bt GM Cotton less profitable than conventional Cotton as 'stink bugs' hit back

EPA Restricts Planting of Biotech Corn - Jan 2000
Novartis GM Bt maize needs additional pesticides
No economic benefit to farmers from Bt corn - University of Purdue
GM pest technology collapsing - BBC (May 99)
Bt corn refuges proposed to increase to minimum 50% in southern US to fight GM pest technology breakdown (April 99)
Problems with Bt corn including up to 40% Non-Bt-Corn Refuges to slow GM technology breakdown - University of Illinois Review
Novartis desperate to prevent GM Bt corn crop obsolescence
Monsanto cuts price of GM cotton seed and withdraws value guarantee after two years of "mixed results"
Nearly 1 million acres of Bt Cotton crop in the U.S. attacked by bollworms
Bt Cotton still needs insecticide applications
Bt-spliced "NatureGuard" potatoes suffer from severe plant virus damage
EPA Requires Large Bt Refuges
Flaws in Bt cotton resistance management programme
Purdue University News on gm generated pesticide failures
Bt gm crops require more complex management from farmers
Problems with GM Bt insect resistance in cotton and maize
Problems with GM Bt insect resistance in maize
Monsanto's complex crop management requirements for growers to try and stop rapid pest resistance build-up in GM cotton

Viral Resistance Crops

Big Isle virus resistant papaya crops tainted
Risks associated with virus resistant plants as identified by Monsanto and USDA
Special risks with field scale environmental releases of GMOs
Viral risk from GMOs
Viral danger from GM crops confirmed - John Innes Study details
Special risks from the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus promoter in transgenic crops

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