Definitions of some technical biological terms as defined in: 'A History of Genetically Modified Plants', Paul.F. Lurquin, Columbia University Press 2001 [L] or Henderson's Dictionary of Biological Terms [H]

Aberrant [H]: with characteristics not in accordance with type [as in 'aberration']
Aneuploidy [H]
...chromosomal abnormalities that disrupt relative gene dosage, such as deletions
Biolistics [H]
technique of introducing DNA into a cell by firing minute DNA-coated particles into the cell using a device powered by pressurised helium - the biolistic gun or 'gene gun'
Cotyledon: [H]
-part of plant embryo in which food is stored and which may form a leaf or be left below ground when seed germinates
DNA: [H]
deoxyribonucleic acid, a very large linear molecule which acts as the store of genetic information in all cells
Chromosome: [H]
... a structure composed of DNA and associated proteins, and which carries the genetic information
Cytogenetics: [H]
study of the microscopic structure of chromosomes
Direct gene transfer [L]:
the action of introducing DNA molecules into organisms using physical or chemical helpers
Genome: [H]
the complete set of different genes carried by an organism or virus
Geomics: [H]
the study of complete genomes
Homologous [H]
... [DNA] molecules which share the same base sequence [as in 'homology']
Meiosis: [H]
a type of nuclear division which results in daughter nuclei each containing half the number of the parent, i.e. chromosome number is reduced reduced from diploid to haploid.....
Ploidy [H]
- number of chromosomes or DNA molecules in a cell or organelle
Recombinant DNA: [H]
DNA produced by joining together in vitro [in the laboratory] genes from different sources, or which has in some way been modified in vitro to introduce novel genetic information
Transformation [L]:
.... introduction of new, foreign genes into an organism by transfer of DNA
Transgene [L]:
a foreign gene introduced into a cell or organism by transformation
Transgenesis [H]
: the deliberate introduction of a gene from one species into another species by genetic engineering techniques
Transposon [L]:
also called a jumping gene. A segment of DNA able to excise itself from a chromosomal locus [position] and reintegrate itself elsewhere in the genome