" A number of countries are candidates
for having supplied directly to Bosnia. Pakistan delivered equipment, as did the Sultan of
Brunei, who paid for anti-tank missiles from Malaysia. In January 1993 already, a
Pakistani vessel with ten containers of arms, which were destined for the ABiH, was
intercepted in the Adriatic Sea. Pakistan definitely defied
the United Nations ban on supply of arms to the Bosnian Muslims and sophisticated
anti-tank guided missiles were air lifted by the Pakistani intelligence agency, ISI, to
help Bosnians fight the Serbs, an ex-ISI Chief has officially admitted in a written
petition submitted before a court in Lahore. The document was submitted by Lt. General
(Retd) Javed Nasir, who was head of the ISI from March 1992 to May 1993, in a case he
filed against the owner and editors of the largest newspaper and TV group of Pakistan, in
an anti Terrorism Court. It remains unclear how the missiles were transported to Bosnia
and who did it.... As early as 1992 Iran had opened a smuggling route to Bosnia with the
assistance of Turkey; this was two years before the Clinton administration gave
'permission' for creating the [illegal arms] Croatian pipeline. Bosnian government
officials acknowledged that in 1993 a Turkish pipeline also existed, through which the
above-mentioned arms from Saudi Arabia, Malaysia, Brunei and Pakistan were smuggled.....
NATO officers stated in a British daily newspaper that if the American intelligence
services used a cover, 'Turkey would be the obvious choice'. The Turkish air force had
C-130s that could reach Tuzla. This was otherwise also true of the Iranian and Pakistani
air forces, which were also mentioned as possible third-party countries for supplies via
Turkey to Tuzla. The UK Defence Intelligence Staff (DIS) was also aware of the American
secret arms supplies to the ABiH. According to a British intelligence official, the DIS
never made an issue of them, so as not to further damage the sensitive relationship with
the US services. An internal DIS analysis concluded that the arms were delivered via 'a
different network', and that the entire operation was probably led by the NSC [the US
President's National Security Council]. It was stressed that the CIA and DIA were not
involved in the Black Flights to Tuzla. Incidentally, the DIS received a direct order from
the British government not to investigate this affair. This was not permitted for the
simple reason that the matter was too sensitive in the framework of American-British
relations.... The Pentagon had likewise identified Cengic as the main link between the
supplies from Islamic countries, such as Iran, Turkey and Pakistan.... The conclusion must
be that the United States 'turned a blind eye' to the Croatian pipeline, but in the case
of the Black Flights to Tuzla Air Base, they deliberately closed their 'eyes' (of the AWAC
aircraft) for the direct Turkish flights. US aircraft did not themselves fly to Tuzla,
because their discovery would have seriously embarrassed the US government and put
transatlantic relations under even greater pressure. Supplies via a third party country
were a simpler solution for the United States."
Srebrenica - A Safe Area?
Appendix II - Intelligence and the war in Bosnia 1992 1995: The role of the intelligence and security services
Chapter 4, Secret arms supplies and other covert actions
Report Published on Behalf of The Dutch Government, 10 April 2002
Visit Web Home Page of Dutch Government Report at
Intelligence and the war in Bosnia 1992 1995: The role of the intelligence and security services
 Confidential interview (67).
 Interview with R.J. Woolsey, 08/06/00.
 James Risen & Doyle McManus, 'U.S. had options to let Bosnia get arms', Los Angeles Times, 14/0796 and Walter Pincus, 'Woolsey, in testimony, Criticizes White House', The Washington Post, 11/06/96.
 Ed Vulliamy, 'America's Secret Bosnia Agenda', The Observer, 20/11/94.
 James Risen & Doyle McManus, 'U.S. had options to let Bosnia get arms', Los Angeles Times, 14/07/96.
 Confidential interviews (12) and (13).
 Confidential interview (14).
 For this, see Chapter 10 of Part II of the Srebrenica report.
 'Wapens moslims onderschept' ('Muslim arms intercepted'), Trouw, 21/01/93.
 'Ex-ISI Chief Reveals Secret Missile Shipments to Bosnia defying UN Embargo', in: South Asia Tribune Publications, Issue No 22, Dec 23-29, 2002.
 Confidential interview (44) and James Risen, 'Iran gave Bosnia leader $ 500,000', Los Angeles Times, 31/12/96.
 'The Army of Bosnia and Herzegovina', Janes's Intelligence Review, February 1993, pp. 63-65.
 For example: MIS/CO. Developments in the former Yugoslav federation, no. 26/95, 01/06/95.
 Ripley, Operation Deliberate Force, p. 90.
 John Pomfret, 'US Allies Fed Pipeline Of Covert Arms in Bosnia', The Washington Post, 12/05/96 and Johan Peleman, Wapenhandel naar BosniŽ-Herzegovina' ('Arms trade to Bosnia-Hercegovina'), Noord-Zuid Cahier, No. 22(3), September 1997, pp. 88-89.
 Robert Fox, 'Dangerous games of fact and fantasy', The Daily Telegraph, 10/02/93. See also the statements of former FC L. MacKenzie: 'Interventie zal in BosniŽ geen vrede brengen' ('Intervention will bring no peace in Bosnia'), De Volkskrant, 06/02/93.
 'Bosnische vice-president: Kroaten hebben ons nodig' ('Bosnian president: Croats need us'), Trouw, 23/02/93.
 Rose, Fighting for Peace, p. 81.
 O'Shea, Crisis at Bihac, p. 159.
 John Pomfret, 'US Allies Fed Pipeline Of Covert Arms in Bosnia', The Washington Post, 12/05/096.
 Interview with Jan-Inge Svensson, 15/11/02.
 Confidential interview (68).
 William Drozdiak, 'US Accused of Covert Bosnia Aid', Chicago-Sun Times, 28/07/95.
 William Drozdiak, 'US Accused of Covert Bosnia Aid', Chicago-Sun Times, 28/07/95; Richard Dowden & John Carlin, 'US secretly supplying weapons to Bosnia', The Independent, 26/02/95 and Robert Fox, 'Iran's cases of cash helped buy Muslim victory in Bosnia', The Daily Telegraph, O1/01/97.
 Confidential interview (8).
 'Turska pokusavala da naoruza bosanske Muslimane', Borba, 05/12/94 and confidential information (36).
 Robert Fox, 'Iran's cases of cash helped buy Muslim victory in Bosnia', The Daily Telegraph, 01/01/97.
 NMFA, 911.31. BVD to CVIN+ participants, 29/04/93, p. 25.
 MoD, MIS/CO, File 438,0315, AR Briefing, no. 7/1995, 20/02/95.
Islamic Terrorism in the Balkans
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